*On this day in 2014, Gunmen suspected to be members of the bokko harram insurgents, set off three bombs at the central mosque in the northern Nigerian city of Kano killing at least 120 people and injuring over 260 others.
The 2014 Kano bombing was a terrorist attack in Kano, the biggest commercial city in Northern Nigeria.
The mosque that was attacked is next to the palace of the Emir of Kano, Muhammad Sanusi II, Nigeria’s second most senior Muslim cleric, who had urged civilians to protect themselves by arming up against Boko Haram.
Two suicide bombers blew themselves up and gunmen opened fire on those who were trying to escape
President Goodluck Jonathan condemned the attacks and ordered the national security services “to launch a full-scale investigation and to leave no stone unturned until all agents of terror undermining the right of every citizen to life and dignity are tracked down and brought to justice”.
In a few days thereafter, in December 2014, the leader of the Nigerian Boko Haram group, Abubakar Shekau, accused the emir of Kano, Sanusi Lamido Sanusi, of deviating from Islam and threatened to kill him.
Internal insurgency has been Nigeria’s biggest security challenge since 2009, resulting in the death of over 3000 people.
*On this day in 1781, the crew of the British slave ship Zong murdered 133 Africans by dumping them into the sea to claim insurance.
The mass killing of the African slaves by the crew of the British slave ship Zong was also known as the Zong massacre.
The Gregson slave-trading syndicate, based in Liverpool, owned the ship and sailed her in the Atlantic slave trade.
As was common business practice, they had taken out insurance on the lives of the slaves as cargo.
When the ship ran low on potable water following navigational mistakes, the crew threw slaves overboard into the sea to drown, partly in order to ensure the survival of the rest of the ship’s passengers, and in part to cash in on the insurance on the slaves, thus not losing money on the slaves who would have died from the lack of drinking water.
After the slave ship reached port at Black River, Jamaica, Zong’s owners made a claim to their insurers for the loss of the slaves.
When the insurers refused to pay, the resulting court cases (Gregson v Gilbert in 1783 held that in some circumstances, the deliberate killing of slaves was legal and that insurers could be required to pay for the slaves’ deaths.
The judge, Lord Chief Justice, the Earl of Mansfield, ruled against the syndicate owners in this case, due to new evidence being introduced suggesting the captain and crew were at fault.
Following the first trial, freed slave Olaudah Equiano brought news of the massacre to the attention of the anti-slavery campaigner Granville Sharp, who worked tirelessly to have the ship’s crew prosecuted for murder.
The massacre also inspired works of art and literature.
It was commemorated in London in 2007, among events to mark the bicentenary of the British Slave Trade Act 1807, which abolished the African slave trade.
A monument to the killed slaves on Zong was installed at Black River, Jamaica, their intended port.
*On this day in 1990, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher resigned as leader of the Conservative Party and the Prime
On 14 November, Michael Heseltine mounted a challenge for the leadership of the Conservative Party.
Opinion polls had indicated that he would give the Conservatives a national lead over Labour.
Although Thatcher won the first ballot with 204 to 152 votes and 16 abstentions, Heseltine had attracted sufficient support to force a second ballot.
Under party rules, Thatcher had not only needed to win a majority, but her margin over Heseltine had to be equivalent to 15% of the 372 Conservative MPs in order to win the leadership election outright; with 54.8% against 40.9% for Heseltine, she came up four votes short.
Thatcher initially declared her intention to “fight on and fight to win” the second ballot, but consultation with her Cabinet persuaded her to withdraw.
After holding an audience with the Queen, calling other world leaders, and making one final Commons speech, she left Downing Street in tears.
She reportedly regarded her ousting as a betrayal.
Her resignation was a shock to many outside Britain, with foreign observers such as Henry Kissinger and Mikhail Gorbachev privately expressing consternation.
*On this day in 2016, a chartered Avro RJ85 plane carrying at least 81 people, including a Brazilian football club, Chapecoense who were going for a continental cup clash in Columbia, crashed near Medellín, Colombia, killing majority of the passengers.
The aircraft was transporting 22 players, 23 coaching and other staff, 2 guests and 21 journalists from Viru Viru International Airport in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, to José María Córdova International Airport in Colombia.
The team was scheduled to play the first leg of the 2016 Copa Sudamericana Finals in Medellín against Colombian team Atlético Nacional.
One of the four crew members, three of the players, and two other passengers survived.
The causes for the crash – according to the preliminary report – were insufficient flight planning disregarding necessary fuel stops, not declaring an emergency when the fuel neared exhaustion.
Columbian side Athletico Nascional surrendered the Championships thus making Chapecoense the champions in a great Spirit of Sportsmanship to the admiration of the sporting world.
FIFA president Gianni Infantino gave a speech at Arena Condá, Chapecoense’s stadium, at a public memorial.
A committee representing FIFA at the service was composed of former football legends Clarence Seedorf and Carles Puyol; and Real Madrid player Lucas Silva.
Infantino gave his speech at the end of the service by saying: “Today we are all Brazilians, we are all Chapecoenses”. Nacional were awarded the FIFA Fair Play Award for requesting the Copa Sudamericana title to be awarded to Chapecoense.